For some faults, the tuned circuit contractor can be configured to open on a fault condition, specifically for tuned circuit line reactor overloads.
In other circumstances, the fault detection is informational only such as the line reactor overload. In the case of a line reactor overload opening the tuned circuit contactor can make the overload worse as it forces harmonics flowing into the tuned circuit to instead flow through the line reactor.
While most variable frequency drives (VFD) use a built in DC choke or AC line reactor, some lower HP drives have no built-in impedance. Passive filters are an effective solution to filter harmonic currents produced by 6-pulse VFDs and reduce source current total harmonic distortion (THD) to 5% or less.
Industry standard three‐phase variable speed drives draw harmonic currents from the three phase voltage source. These harmonics can cause overheating and premature failure of power system equipment. An active filter is an effective way to filter the harmonic currents required by VFDs and eliminate the harmonic currents and voltages from the AC source.
Passive harmonic filters are an effective solution to filter harmonic currents. But choosing the correct filter for your application can be confusing. TCI can provide a wide range of filtering solutions and assist in choosing the right one. Find out more in our Tech Paper!
TCI, LLC Offers Smaller Line Reactor with UL 690V Maximum Voltage Rating
Germantown, Wisconsin-March 31, 2018- TCI, LLC launches new reactor to protect smaller variable frequency drives and motor. The newest addition to the KDR family-the MA frame reactor, is the only UL Listed reactor in the market with a 690V maximum voltage rating and a class N 200°C insulation rating.
Yes, this will be available as a kit option, or by adding a DR suffix to the open MA frame reactor part number to receive a DIN rail kit DR01 inside the box. KDR MA frame reactors can be DIN rail mounted using kit DR01 which is a bag containing two clips, mounting hardware, and installation instructions. Click the link for the DR01 drawing.
TCI, LLC now offers a reactor with a smaller footprint for 0.25 HP-3 HP motors-KDR MA frame. The addition of a KDR Line Reactor, such as the MA frame, will reduce harmonic distortion, which reduces the total RMS current, thereby improving the total power factor.
Smallest footprint available
The only UL Listed 690 V terminal block reactor on the market
Vertical tool access for easy installation
Accessory adapter plates available to accommodate different mounting footprint requirements
In addition, we have improved the process of building reactors by automating the winding of the coils. This will allow our team to make parts quicker in order to fulfill same day shipments.
TCI had UL investigate listing of the reactor bobbin terminals to 690 V so the maximum reactor voltage can be 690 V. This allows any of these reactors to be used in any application within the maximum current rating up to a maximum voltage of 690 V.
Due to the small size of the MA frame reactor nameplate label, the schematic and reactor connection diagram were molded into the terminal top cover to economize label space. The terminal top cover also lists the wire size and torque specs for the terminals.
Tape is used to hold the outer edge of coils in place until the reactor can be treated in varnish. The KDR MA frame reactors are constructed in such a way that there is no need for tape to hold components in place.
We typically like to understand the system components and the operating environment of your application. TCI has an application worksheet available to assist you in providing this information. For additional information, please contact the TCI Technical Support Group.
The L-C-R, low pass filter, uses passive components. The circuit utilizes a series inductor along with parallel capacitors and resistors. The power schematic is pictured in the Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual.
The KMG Industrial filter comes in a standard open panel construction for customers installing the filter into their drive or auxiliary cabinet, and a NEMA 1 enclosed version for general industrial indoor applications. The KMG General Purpose filter is available in NEMA 1 indoor and NEMA 3R outdoor enclosed versions.
We recommend the filter be mounted directly adjacent to the output terminals. In most applications, it is possible to mount the filter and drive side-by-side. Due to the possibility of increased parasitic component effects such as cable capacitance, it is recommended to limit the distance between the drive and the KMG filter to less than 10 (wire) feet.
TCI designed and developed the sine wave filter to correspond with the industry’s demand for a High Performance Output Filter. This filter must improve the power quality and greatly reduce the effects of dv/dt on motor applications. The term “MotorGuard” signifies the function of guarding the motor from damaging voltage distortion that has been known to cause premature motor failure.
TCI does not have test and trial models available for general use. Your TCI distributor and representative can work with you to discuss your specific application and arrange for special considerations. It is the intent of TCI to ensure proper product operation and customer satisfaction.
There are currently a great many TCI KMG filters in field use. Current field applications range from use as a power supply filter for shore to ship power to extreme long lead lengths found in down hole pumping installations.
TCI has widely used these filters in deep well pumping applications. They are successfully operating in Canada, the US and Central/South America on oil and gas exploration and pumping operations. This filter has allowed the use of modern low voltage drives with step-up transformers and custom designed medium voltage motors in extremely long lead applications to accomplish tasks never before possible with standard low voltage drive technology. Please contact your TCI representative for more details.
Yes, by virtue of attenuating the high frequency components present in the PWM wave form and producing near sinusoidal voltage at the motor terminals, the amount of common mode current flowing through the motor bearings is greatly reduced. There is also a reduction in the amount of EMI when the KMG is installed.
We have selection charts listing nominal horsepower ratings with maximum continuous current ratings. If you have non-standard motors or motors other than NEMA design B with high full load amp ratings, you can use the actual motor nameplate FLA for making the selection. Contact your TCI distributor or representative if the current rating is in question.
The V1k dv/dt output filter is designed to limit the peak voltage to approximately 1,000 volts. These filters are successful in most simple drive/motor applications where lead lengths are about 1,000 feet or less, and a modulated output waveform is acceptable to the load. In terms of a line reactor, the inductive reactance achieved with a line reactor works to slow down the rise time of the spike but can do nothing to limit the magnitude of it. The MotorGuard goes beyond this to eliminate the carrier frequency effects in the modulation process. The result is a smooth sinusoidal waveform and load friendly power supply.
The KMG High Performance Output Filter is a current rated device and is available in 460/480 volt and 575/600 volt versions. The Price List Guide lists nominal horse power and maximum continuous currents based on the NEC motor full load current table for standard 460 volt and 575 volt motors.
The filter eliminates the effects of dv/dt on the motor insulation by removing the high frequency voltage distortion generated by the drive output power semi-conductors. The modern variable frequency drive has revolutionized the use of the conventional squirrel cage induction motor; however, current drive topology can contribute to insulation problems in the motor. The KMG greatly attenuates the carrier frequency voltage distortion and lowers the level of line distortion.
The MotorGuard filter was designed for ease of installation and commissioning. Special programming or factory qualified start up is not required. The comprehensive Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual provided with the filter is sufficient for most installations by a qualified installer.
The KMG MotorGuard filter is typically used on extremely long lead applications, typically beyond 1,000 feet. These filters are currently in use on applications with varying lead lengths, up to as much as 15,000 feet.
Like most electronic equipment, heat, humidity, high elevations, and dirty environments require special considerations. The KMG Industrial filter is designed for use in protected indoor environments similar to the standard drive. Normal indoor industrial environments are specified as having a maximum ambient temperature of 40 degrees C and are protected from dirt and moisture. The KMG General Purpose filter is designed for the NEMA 1 indoor and NEMA 3R outdoor enclosure. Please contact your TCI distributor or representative if additional application assistance is required.
The KMG output filter is an L-C-R, low pass filter. This is a tuned filter which combines inductance, capacitance, and resistance. Along with these fundamental components, the filter contains an optional protection monitor board. This board ensures that the filter is providing adequate dv/dt and peak voltage protection and includes a fault alarm relay for customer use. For more detailed information, please refer to the Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual.
The purpose of the filter is to take the output power of a PWM drive and remove the high frequency voltage distortion. This distortion is a result of the modulation protocol of the drive. This distortion is typical with all PWM VFDs. The purpose of the filter is to produce a smooth waveform that is of near sine wave performance.
The filter carries a product warranty of one year from date of commissioning, assuming proper storage as defined in the Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, or 18 months from date of shipment, whichever occurs first.
The objective of the filter is to duplicate the efforts of typical power utilities. According to utility standards, the power quality is to limit voltage distortion to approximately 5%. The MotorGuard filter follows that challenge but limits voltage distortion to between 5 and 7%. This is well within the operating standards of any conventional squirrel cage induction motor. It is well accepted by any standard transformer as well should the load to the filter be a transformer.
If down time is critical, power fuses, control circuit fuses, capacitors, and an alarm board should be stocked at the installation. In the uncommon event of failure, TCI uses commercially available control components. Inductors, capacitors, resistors, and design specific items can be acquired from TCI upon request.
Similar to the KLC, the V1K is designed for use on modern PWM drives with a diode front end power structure. While being the latest in drive technology, these fast switching electronic drives have been found to produce a high amount of dV/dt or voltage distortion on the output voltage waveform. To operate the drive and motor properly, we recommend the drive carrier frequency be adjusted to 8 kHz or less and the drive be operated at an output frequency of 60 Hz and lower. The manual can assist with the other system considerations required.
The V1K is a very effective dV/dt filter and will provide excellent protection for your motor when use on a PWM, variable frequency drive. The output waveform will show a notable reduction in the magnitude of the voltage excursions found on a conventional drive output waveform. It is designed to limit the voltage spikes to 1000 volts per u Second or less and our tests indicate it is very effective at that goal. It is not however, a sine wave filter and it does not return the drive output square wave to a smooth sine wave profile. For this type of performance on the output of the VFD, we recommend you consider using the TCI, KMG MotorGuard Sine Wave Filter.
Because of the new design, the V1K is smaller than the KLCUL in most instances and in many instances, smaller than the KLC output filter. This was one of the design parameters of the new filter configuration. Outline drawings are posted on the TCI website for both the KLC and V1k product lines.
No. It is not the PWM carrier energy that is causing premature insulation breakdowns in motors, it is the high overshoot voltage due to resonance (or wave reflection). Carrier stripping is an old idea with drawbacks such as high losses, large size, and undue stress on the inverter. Carrier stripping filters require huge amounts of capacitance and inductance, both of which cause problems. The inverter will have to supply large amounts of capacitive current each time it switches, and motor terminal voltage will be reduced at the fundamental frequency, resulting in degraded torque per AMP characteristics and dynamic motor response to changes in the load. Also, the impedance decreases the velocity factor of the wire, resulting in poor dynamic response of the motor. The V1K output filter is designed to minimize the impact of the filter on overall system performance (with respect to both torque/AMP and dynamic response concerns). It simply rounds the steep edges of the switched voltage in order to prevent against overshoot, and system losses are held to an almost imperceptible minimum. In addition, it’s a lot less expensive.
The MotorGuard High Performance Output Filter is designed to work on a variety of applications where the power quality of the drive output needs conditioning. It is most commonly used for motor applications involving very long lead lengths, multiple motors, power supplies for test equipment, or inputs for a step-up transformer. Care should be taken when using the filter on vector drives, due to the feedback loop from the motor to the drive. In some instances, the KMG filter is not compatible with a vector drive. If you have a unique application, please see your TCI representative or contact the Technical Support Group at TCI.
While we do not have an actual demonstration unit available to be shipped in the field, we are happy to provide professional application information. If you are interested in additional information and a discussion on the use of the MotorGuard filter, please give your distributor or TCI representative a call.
TCI has designed the MotorGuard with the standard features most commonly requested. Please contact your local TCI representative or the TCI Technical Support Group for additional information on the MotorGuard high performance filter.
The KMG Industrial filter is available in both Open Panel designs and NEMA 1 general application industrial indoor enclosures. The KMG General Purpose filter is available in NEMA 1 and NEMA 3R enclosures. TCI would be happy to assist you with the mounting of an open panel design into an enclosure of your choosing. For additional assistance, contact the TCI Technical Support Group.
It is quite common to specify the KMG MotorGuard in an open panel design and install it in an open bay of the drive cabinet. TCI has worked with drive manufacturers to develop a standard set of back panel dimensions that easily incorporate into many standard drive cabinets. Please see filter dimensions and watts loss information on the TCI web site for use in your application.
If your specific application is discussed in advance with a TCI representative, a trial application can be arranged. If the performance of the product is in question, your TCI distributor or representative will assist you in your application. It is the intent of TCI to ensure the successful operation of the filter along with a long service life. If you purchase any TCI product, and you are not satisfied, feel free to return the product for full credit.
TCI has developed the KMG MotorGuard filter with technical input from many major drive manufacturers. We have reviewed their drive topology to ensure compatibility; however, there is no guarantee of filter compatibility with all drive topologies. Contact TCI for application assistance if drive compatibility is in question.
TCI guarantees the output of the MotorGuard filter to greatly improve the quality of the drive output power. While drive output power does vary slightly from drive manufacturers, TCI has designed the filter to achieve near sine wave power. The outcome is guaranteed to be suitable for all standard NEMA design motors. Refer to the web site for specific Performance Guarantee information.
TCI has designed and tested the MotorGuard filter with technical input from the major drive manufacturers as well as actual lab testing to ensure compatibility. TCI cannot be responsible for ongoing changes in drive topology. To date, the filter has been successfully operated with a multitude of drives. TCI feels confident the filter will be compatible with all major drive topologies. If the filter fails to function due to drive topology incompatibility, TCI will accept return of the filter for full credit.
The KMG requires the drive to have a carrier frequency of between 2 and 4 kHz. If the drive has a variable carrier, the average operating frequency must remain between 2 and 4 kHz. The drive should be operated in scalar mode. The maximum drive output operating frequency must be 80 Hz or less. There are no special drive requirements or modifications necessary for the successful operation of the KMG filter.
Like virtually all passive devices, there is an associated loss factor. The actual equipment efficiency depends on the RMS current loading. The power resistors are voltage, not current sensitive, and will experience a constant loss factor. Full load loss information stated in watts is available on the TCI website.
TCI has collaborated with major drive manufacturers as well as equipment companies to install these filters. Drive OEMs, as well as Pump, Drilling equipment, HVAC and other equipment manufacturers are utilizing the TCI filter for successful system operation. Contact your local TCI representative for more application information.
The V1K is made for three phase drive systems. If the drive is being fed by a single phase input power, the output will be three phase and the system will utilize a three phase motor. Because the output of the drive is three phase, the system will experience the same effects of dV/dt that a conventional three phase input power system will have. Yes, the V1K is well suited for this application to protect the motor from the effects of dV/dt.
The V1K can be used on multiple motor applications. We recommend the use of no more than 10 motors with a total lead length of 1,000 feet unless the application is discussed with TCI’s Technical Support Department.
The V1K is designed for use with modern PWM drives where dv/dt and the reflected wave phenomenon is a prevalent issue. Older series current source and SCR based drives incorporate early technology and switching speeds that do not produce as harmful a content of dv/dt and thus would not require this type of device for motor protection. Your drive manufacturer can respond to this question should you be using an earlier series of drive technology.
The V1k is sized from a current standpoint and the series inductor is based on a 600 volt power system or less. You can use the V1k on 208 and 240 volt systems by merely sizing the device based on the FLA current rating of the motor just as you would for a 480 volt power system.
Output devices are sized based on the load itself. The load determines the current that will be drawn through the filter. Merely size the filter based on the full load amp, (FLA) rating of the motor. We suggest you size the filter no more than 110% of the motor FLA to ensure a proper match between drive, load, and filter.
If you can add the low cost of the filter to your long lead drive application to preserve and extend the life of your drive system, it is typically very well spent dollars. Considering the cost of the motor, removal, re-installation, and the associated downtime and cost of frustration, the cost of the filter is minimal. Regardless if the motor’s insulation system can handle the spike voltage, it will be much less stressed and burdened with the filter in place. This will always help extend the service life of the system.
The V1K filter comes complete with connection terminals such as a terminal block on the smaller units and compression lugs on the larger size units. Please see the outline drawings for the connections provided on the specific size needed.
A very positive effect of the V1K output filter is to greatly reduce the amount of common mode current on the line. Common mode current is the phenomenon which causes motor shaft bearing currents and the resulting motor bearing failures. By reducing this current, motor bearings can enjoy a longer service life. The V1K filter will not eliminate this current but will reduce the line content between 30 and 40%. This is notable and very much needed in motor and drive applications.
The main purpose of the V1K is to address and control the effects of dV/dt on the VFD output. Because of the circuit used, the V1K also reduces the content of common mode current on the line by 30-40%. This is especially useful in the prevention of motor shaft bearing currents which are known to cause premature motor bearing failures in adjustable frequency drive applications.
Essentially both are comparable dV/dt filters. Many of our customers have been asking us to reduce the required panel space for the filter and eliminate the “L” style base bracket used on the KLC. The V1K is an updated design responding to that request which focuses on mounting and installation convenience. They are very close in circuit design and thus both utilize the success of that filter on controlling dV/dt.
TCI has designed and developed the V1K to cover the vast majority of NEMA frame motor applications through 600 HP at 480 volts. Above that current level the V1K can be paralleled to achieve the performance of using a single device. For example if 1,500 amps is required, two 750 amp units can be wired in parallel and connected through a common power block on both the line and load side of the filter. While TCI does not provide this configuration, TCI Technical Support will assist you in these applications.
The product has a 600 volt class of insulation and is safe for operation on 600 volt drive systems. Because this product focuses on the 480 volt product, it will operate safely on a 600 volt line but the level of dV/dt will be slightly higher than on a 480 volt system. Performance tests resulted in distortion voltage peaks of around 1,200 volts instead of the 1,000 volt limits on a 480 volt system. This level is still considerably less than the typical peak distortion voltage of up to 2,100 volts found on 600 volt systems and should greatly assist in extending the life of the electric motor.
The V1K is connected in the same fashion as the KLC filter. It is a simple series connection between the drive and motor. Again, the filter is designed to be installed directly next to the drive and simply connected to the drive output terminals. Unlike some output filters that are installed at the motor end, the V1K is conveniently located along side the drive and is useful at protecting both the motor and lead cables.
The V1K is a drive output filter that addresses dV/dt. This filter is very effective in this cause and can protect standard and special service electric motors from the damaging affects of dV/dt. The V1K filter, however, does not return the drive output square wave to a sinusoidal waveform and thus is not referred to as a sine wave filter. TCI has designed a specific filter for those applications where extremely low distortion and near perfect sine wave performance is required. For those applications, please refer to the KMG MotorGuard sine wave filter.
The V1K consists of two major components. The first part of the filter is a series line reactor which dampens the voltage distortion on the output of the VFD. The second component is a snubber circuit which effectively reduces the voltage distortion, dV/dt, to 1,000 volts per micro second on a typical 480 volt system. These two components are very effective at protecting the electric motor and the affects of dV/dt on the output side of the drive.
The V1K output filter can be used on most commercial and industrial applications were the motor is located at an extended distance from the VFD. Typical applications include HVAC fans, pumps, conveyors, drilling applications, and other drive applications where the motor is located from 100 to 1,000 ft from the drive.
In most applications this is not a critical question. When an application does arise where the ambient temperature can be excessively low, we suggest the filter be exposed to a temperature of no lower than minus 15 degrees Fahrenheit unless special provisions are made. In some cases devices such as space heaters may be required when the device is not in operation. This follows true to most electronic equipment incorporating capacitors and other extreme-temperature sensitive components.
Like most electrical equipment, all testing and rating data has been established having an ambient temperature of 40 degrees Celsius. Operating the filter in an ambient temperature above this should only be practiced when conferring with TCI Technical support to ensure the service life of the filter and the integrity of the filter performance is not in jeopardy.
The standard V1k product is promoted for use on standard drive applications out to 1,000 feet of lead cable when setting up the system with a given set of drive and wiring parameters. Specific applications can reach more than 1,000 feet (consult factory for these applications).
Yes, communication options include Modbus RTU over RS485 and EtherNet/IP. The HGA now includes a large, 6”, 65k color HMI Operator Interface which allows users to quickly and easily set-up, monitor performance and remotely control the active filter for superior control and performance.
The HGA will keep the current in phase with the line voltage, however, if it reaches full capacity, the distortion power factor will increase and the total power factor (KW/KVA) will decrease from unity. If additions to the system cause the HGA to reach full capacity, additional HGA units can be installed to correct the situation.
The terms EMI and RFI are often used interchangeably. EMI is actually any frequency of electrical noise, whereas RFI is a specific subset of electrical noise on the EMI spectrum. There are two types of EMI. Conducted EMI is unwanted high frequencies that ride on the AC wave form. Radiated EMI is similar to an unwanted radio broadcast being emitted from the power lines. There are many pieces of equipment that can generate EMI, variable frequency drives included. In the case of variable frequency drives, the electrical noise produced is primarily contained in the switching edges of the PWM controller. As the technology of drives evolves, switching frequencies increase. These increases also increase the effective edge frequencies produced, thereby increasing the amount of electrical noise.
Common mode noise is the electrical noise on all power lines with respect to ground. Differential mode noise is the electrical noise on one line with respect to another line. When considering a filter for use in a variable speed drive application, it is important to note that common mode noise reduction is the most important factor. Variable frequency drives produce very little differential mode, or line to line, electrical noise due to the presence of DC bus capacitors.
Power system dynamics are very difficult to quantitatively evaluate due to a variety of power system dynamics that can add to the harmful effects of dV/dt. Such components as line capacitance, parasitic capacitance, induced voltages and the like can intensify the voltage distortion on the line and contribute to the degradation of the motors insulation system. The V1K filter does an outstanding job of controlling these elements and bringing the distortion voltage down to a level that can be supported by the motors insulation system. Even standard electric motors can be used on drives with the V1K output filter.
Line losses from the V1K are not published because they vary greatly due to the system dynamics and such settings as drive carrier frequency. From independent testing done by a major drive manufacturer, the V1K was found to be 98% efficient in operation. From a line voltage drop consideration, the impedance of the filter is 1.5% at rated load. For example, a 21 amp V1K will have a line voltage drop of approximately 1.5% when applied to a 480 volt line at 21 amps. Because impedance is proportionate to the load, the line voltage drop will decrease as the percent of load decreases.
The V1K output filter is designed to be located directly next to the VFD. TCI recommends the filter be located within 10 feet of the drive to properly handle the voltage distortion, dV/dt, before it escalates on the line and causes damage to the motor and lead cables. If this is not possible due to the location or configuration of the drive system, we recommend our customers contact TCI Technical Support to discuss the application and ways to address this situation.
Yes, any standard approved type of lead cable can be use along with the V1K. From testing conducted at TCI, we have found the use of flat ribbon and armored cable to produce the best results in keeping the motor terminal peak voltage to the lowest point of line distortion.
As long as the incoming power is strong and does not already reflect depressions or downward swings in line voltage, adding a standard HG7 filter to a drive system that already has a built-in 2.5% line reactor will not be a problem.
The best way to address specification and harmonic limits is to do a proper analysis of your power system to establish a base line value of the harmonics presently on the power system at the point of common coupling, (PCC). Once that value is found, a proper solution can be formulated for your facility. For specifications that state a specific value at the drive or filter terminals, TCI can typically provide an HG7 that will meet the limits of most power quality specifications. Most industry power quality people today rely on the committee studies and findings of IEEE. The guideline that IEEE established is their standard 519-1992. TCI complies with this standard on the HG7 drive-applied harmonic filter when the customer evaluates the harmonic content at the point of the drive or filter terminals. This standard has reached an industry wide level of acceptance, and most power quality Engineers will reference this standard and openly accept the performance of the TCI HG7 filter for drive applied applications. For additional information of IEEE-519 requirements and how the TCI HG7 filter complies, contact the TCI Technical Support staff or you local TCI Territory Manager.
The HG7 filter is sized based on HP when using standard NEMA design B, 2 and 4 pole motors. The filter can be safely used on special motors if the nameplate information is discussed and the filter is sized properly. Contact TCI Technical Support for special motor applications.
The performance is truly better with the HG7 than with earlier passive filter designs. TCI can match performance with any filter design over a broad load range of operation. Very few filter designs can match that performance along with long filter service life and ease of installation and drive compatibility.
The physical size of the “XM” Option is larger than the standard HG7 because of the features added to the product. In both the open style and enclosed version, the filters will be larger when the “XM” Option is specified.
For the sake of the harmonic filter, the 600 volt product was designed with an understanding that 575 volt power systems typically have a target supply voltage of 600 with a nominal applied voltage of around 575 volts. With that in mind, the 600 volt designation can be used on both 575 and 600 volts.
The Power Monitor package includes contactors and filter monitoring equipment. For units rated at 60 horsepower and below, the XM package utilizes indicator lights for filter operation and fuse failure. From 75 HP through 350 HP, the XM package uses the HG2™ Protection Monitor/Harmonic-Power Factor meter. The HG2™ Monitor Board displays operating information such as ITHD, VTHD, total filter amps, true power factor, and a series of fault and protection codes including over-current, over-voltage, and phase imbalance. It is also a programmable safety monitor, capable of bringing the filter off-line in a fault condition, or when the drive goes into a fault condition. For those applications that require the removal of capacitance for the start-up of stand-by generators, the contactors can remove the harmonic duty capacitors. Above 400 HP, the XM package includes a monitor board which has indicator lights to advise the mode of operation and when a fault should occur.
The Standard Package includes everything necessary for an application to meet IEEE 519 standards. From the highest quality harmonic grade capacitors on the market to the extraordinary reactors, this filter will meet the majority of application requirements found today. This cost effective product is available as either an open panel version or in a UL Type 1 enclosure. The open panel is perfect for inclusion in a MCC section or easy installation into industry standard enclosures. The UL Type 1 enclosed units maintain the same vertical profile as the open panel design. This design is perfect for applications where floor space is at a premium.
Harmonic distortion can cause poor power factor, transformer and distribution equipment overheating, random breaker tripping, or even sensitive equipment failure. Since harmonics affect the overall power distribution system, the power utility may even levy heavy fines when a facility is affecting the utilities’ ability to efficiently supply power to all of its customers.
The HG7 standard product is a high performance filter that will perform the function of mitigating excessive harmonics related to the drive system. The “XM” Option goes beyond that to allow additional control, alarm, and monitor features. The “XM” Option would be the desired version to specify if the customer is looking for alarm features should a filter fault occur or be able to turn off the filter circuit without shutting down the drive.
The enclosure you select for your reactor will depend on two things: the degree of protection the reactor must have against indoor and outdoor environments as well as the certification requirements of the installation. TCI offers NEMA 1 enclosures, UL Type 1 enclosures and UL Type 3R enclosures.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) develops standards for the electrical manufacturing industry. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, non-profit, product-safety testing and certification organization. Their ratings are based on similar application descriptions and expected performance. Installations require varying levels of standards and ratings to which TCI offers a range of products that meets those requirements.
The “CP” Option is designed for the very experienced panel builder and systems integrator. TCI can provide technical guidance but reserves the right of filter design to the experienced shop. Contact your TCI Territory or Regional Sales Manager for the required qualifications. If you are not familiar with your Territory or Regional Sales Manager, contact TCI Customer Service for a complete listing.
TCI builds custom equipment for many customers and OEMs. It is in the best interest of everyone that a standard product be selected if possible. Often times, a small, seemingly simple modification can require added Engineering design time, drawings, and a list of special parts to be added. This results in added cost and lead time to acquire the equipment. TCI is sensitive to the needs of the application and suggests the solution product that is the most readily available and cost effective for the customer. If the standard product is not suited for the application or the customer requires special modifications, the TCI Technical Support staff can make suggestions and present ideas for the best solution available. TCI is interested in hearing the needs and requirements of our customers. Contact TCI at (414) 357-4480 or (800) TCI-8282 for more information on power quality and harmonic mitigation equipment.
You can use the HG7 on generator power; however it is more critical to size the device properly. If the non-linear load represents a great portion of the total generator load and the drive is very lightly loaded, the filter capacitance may cause the generator to experience voltage regulation issues. Contact TCI Technical Support for a system evaluation. You may also contact the generator provider for their guidelines on the use of harmonic mitigation and capacitive equipment on their systems.
Yes, an independent third party test was conducted to evaluate the use of the HG7 on bypass systems. The concern is to ensure the series inductor does not provide too excessive of a line voltage drop to prevent proper operation of the bypass control contactors. A 75 HP NEMA design A motor and drive package with a bypass option was tested. Extensive testing showed that the voltage drop across the 480/120 volt control power transformer being caused by the series reactor was approximately 10% at full load which was well within the contactor coils dropout rating. The bypass circuit worked very well and the results concluded the HG7 can be used with a standard drive/bypass configuration without any special system modifications.
The HG7 was designed to focus on drive-applied applications but can be sized for multiple motor systems as well. Caution must be taken to size the unit properly as well as to take all of the power system variables into consideration. Contact TCI Technical Support to fully discuss your multiple motor applications.
TCI has studied the standard drive product offerings used in industry today. Standard, 6 pulse, PWM drives and standard NEMA design motors are compatible packages. The drives typically need no special adjustment when using the HG7 harmonic filter. If your drive application is utilizing unique drive components, contact your drive manufacturer’s technical support staff for clarification on limitations to harmonic mitigation equipment.
The HG7 filter was designed to primarily address the continually expanding AC drive market. This filter technology can be easily employed on DC drives but should be sized for DC drive topology. Standard “K” series HarmonicGuard DC Drive filters are available upon request. Contact TCI Technical Support for more information on DC drive filter options.
The standard HG7 product is truly a plug-n-play product. It merely requires line power connections from the incoming power line and then connected to the drive. Unlike the “K” Series HarmonicGuard filter, the HG7 product does not require control circuit or drive control connections.
“Real” or True power is used to perform real work. Inductive loads require Real and Reactive power. Utilities provide apparent power. Apparent power is a geometric combination of Real and Reactive (or imaginary) power. Reactive power performs no work. However, the flow of reactive current, a component of reactive power, does consume energy as it passes through resistive elements of the power system, thus reducing overall system efficiency. This reactive power is used to generate magnetic fields within motors, transformers, and other magnetic devices. Reactive power, combined with harmonic currents, contribute to poor power factor in electrical systems. The capacitors inherent in the HG7 design supply the necessary reactive power so the utility doesn’t have to. The reduction in harmonic currents further improves the ratio of active power to apparent power. This overall improvement to true power factor assists in the efficient operation of facilities and the avoidance of possible fines due to poor power factor.
This can be done with the TCI “Analyzer” program or reviewed and analyzed by the TCI Technical Support staff. For the sake of general evaluations, you may estimate the drive input terminal point to be at approximately 7% TDD. The system, as a whole, would need further review and program work.
The best way for true power system evaluation is to have an actual power measurement taken at the facility. For the sake of an informal, computer assisted power system review, the Analyzer Program can be found on the TCI website. Contact TCI Technical Support for assistance on this and other thoughts on compliance with IEEE-519 standards.
The HG7 utilizes an integral enclosure system such that the back panel of the filter is actually the back side of the enclosure when an enclosed version is selected. Please see the outline drawings on the TCI website for a closer look at this configuration.
NEMA 1 enclosures are best used when your application is indoors and you need protection against dust. The vent slot size provides cooling for the unit. KDR and KLR Reactors fit mechanically in the smaller NEMA 1 enclosures.
When your application is indoors and requires a larger space for wire bending, UL Type 1 enclosures are the optimal choice. UL Type 1 enclosures provide protection against a limited amount of falling dirt as well as a vent slot size that provides cooling for the unit. This larger enclosure provides the necessary space for heat dissipation.
Outdoor applications require an enclosure that provides a degree of protection against falling rain and the formation of ice on the enclosure. UL Type 3R enclosures are intended for outdoor use. This larger enclosure provides space for wire bending and adequate space for heat dissipation.
Line reactors should be placed on the output of the variable frequency drive at lead lengths of up to 100 feet. dv/dt output filters should be applied at the output of the drive at lead lengths more than 100 feet, up to 3,000 feet.
“IGBT protected” is a fabrication. A reactor applied at the output terminals of an IGBT based drive will see a maximum of 680V for a 480V system. A hipot test is a method of testing insulation integrity, and is a destructive test. In the real world, the only time that a reactor might see excessive voltages is when it is applied at the end of a long set of motor leads, which is an ill-advised and improper installation. This technique is used as a last ditch effort, in an attempt to batter the reactor with high overshoot voltages, instead of the motor. It will eventually lead to insulation destruction in the reactor, regardless of the reactor’s ability to pass a one or two-time 4000V hipot test back at the factory. In addition, this sacrificial lamb technique does nothing to protect the insulation of the motor lead wires, another susceptible system component. The appropriate solution to dv/dt longlead motor failures is the V1k output filter.
Units rated 14 amps and lower have Quick Disconnect (QD) terminations. Units rated between 14 amps and 80 amps have Ring Lugs (RL) terminations. Units rated above 80 amps have Copper Bus (CB) terminations.
The units will have the same design as the 600 volt reactors, thus impedance is proportionately lower. Impedance is down to 4.3% (from 5%) or 2.6% (from 3%). 600/690 = 86.9% multiplied by 5% results in 4.3% (or multiplied by 3% results in 2.6%). Current ratings are standard 600 volt ratings.
Single-phase applications of the three-phase reactors are acceptable, however, it is important to size the unit based on the single phase Full Load Amperage of the VFD. The input and output connections should be on terminals A and C to ensure proper performance.
No, they’re very different. The addition of DC bus chokes of significant inductance in 6 pulse AC drives will result in lower harmonic line currents as compared to drives without those chokes. However, the DC bus choke does not guarantee against the possibility of inverter shut down on DC bus over-voltage trips becuase in normal operation the magnetic structure is near saturation. (The inrush current that is delivered to the bus capacitor when a 2000V AC line voltage transient occurs easily saturates the DC choke, resulting in no circuit inductance.) The drive still trips, bus choke or no bus choke. Drives have a bus over-voltage trip mechanism to prevent against high bus voltages seen when the motor tries to regenerate, and to protect the diode bridge from high line-side voltages. Since the bus choke is not positioned in front of the diode bridge, it is unable to protect the drive from the former. A line reactor drops the high frequency transients that cause short DC bus over-voltage conditions, allowing the drive to continue operation through the transient period.
DIN Rail Drive Reactors reduce installation time. They have all of the capabilities of the smaller KDR and KLR Line Reactors. The convenient DIN Rail mounting assembly reduces installation time by over 75%. Simple 3 lines in, 3 lines out means clean cable layouts and improved cabinet organization.
The UL Listed mark provides a higher level of acceptability. KDR Optimized Drive Reactors that are UL Listed or UL Recognized meet the same safety standards but are viewed differently by Underwriters Laboratories. They consider UL Listed products as being complete end-products, versus components that will be used as part of a larger system. While a UL Recognized Reactor may adequately address a system’s needs, the field inspection may require UL Listed products in a given installation. UL Listed Reactors meet a broad range of installation requirements. UL Recognized products may require an addition to a user’s UL file, whereas UL Listed products may not.
The UL Listed Mark on a product is the manufacturer’s representation that samples of that complete product have been tested by UL to nationally recognized safety standards and found to be free from reasonably foreseeable risk of fire, electric shock and related hazards. UL’s Component Recognition Service covers the testing and evaluation of component products that are incomplete or restricted in performance capabilities. These components will later be used in complete end-products or systems Listed by UL.
Active filtering solutions are being more commonly applied in wastewater plants. The elimination of the base linear motor loads has also highlighted the power quality of the UV systems – high harmonic currents and a low, leading power factor. One solution is to integrate active filtering into these systems, so they are do not adversely affect the overall IEEE-519 compliance of the plant.
High background voltage distortion can result in equipment malfunction and reduce the likelihood of meeting IEEE-519. Background distortion levels of 5% and higher are being seen at facilities from oil and gas pumping sites to industrial plants. It is critical to select the right harmonic mitigation approach under these harsh voltage conditions.
Many oil producers are using multi-well pad drilling as an alternative to single well sites as a way to save money and reduce environmental impacts. Unfortunately, with more wells there is an increase in harmonics, and more spikes in voltage distortion. This is presenting a problem for many multi-well pad drilling sites.
IEEE 519-2014 standard replaces the 1992 version. A number of key changes and differences exist between the two revisions, including clarification of how harmonic limits are applied at the point of common coupling, current THD limits at the PCC, and high frequency current allowance in low current distortion systems.
Power quality and power reliability are critical to data center operation. As strides have been made to improve energy efficiency and Power Utilization Effectiveness (PUE) it is important to ensure harmonics and power quality are not compromised as a result.
The HarmonicShield offers industry leading 5% iTHD performance even at light loads and under the harshest of conditions. The HSD is a cost effective and simplified design that increases drive up-time and eliminates nuisance tripping of circuit breakers.